Copper is required for reproductive performance. A significant symptom of copper deficiency includes delayed or suppressed estrus, along with reduced growth rate, fragile bones and anemia.
Manganese is a necessary element of bone growth and skeletal development, as well as reproduction. Skeletal abnormalities such as weak bones and stiff joints are signs of deficiency, as well as poor reproductive performance and reduced conception rates in older cattle.
Zinc is essential in the function of numerous enzymes. It is also needed for normal development and functioning of the immune system. Research has also shown that zinc is a requirement of the reproductive system. Stiff joints, skin lesions, reduced testicular growth, delayed puberty and abnormal estrus may be signs of a zinc deficiency.
Potassium is a critical component of electrolyte balance in the body. Potassium assists kidneys in maintaining the water balance, muscle contractions (including heart muscle function) and nerve impulse transmission. Forages tend to be excellent sources of potassium, with the best sources coming from early spring pastures that have not yet reached maturity.
Selenium is necessary for tissue repair, normal function of the immune system, and reproductive performance. Selenium is interactive with vitamin E. A diet low in vitamin E may require an increase in selenium supplementation. A common symptom of deficiency is white muscle disease in young cattle characterized by lameness, stiffness, or cardiac failure.
Vitamin A is required for growth, reproduction and maintenance; vitamin D affects calcium and phosphorus utilization and vitamin E helps to increase immune system function as well as interaction with the functions of selenium.